The editors are seeking new research papers for next year’s issue of Strata, the flagship journal of the AIAS.
This annual, peer-reviewed journal publishes research on the archaeology and allied disciplines relating to Israel-Palestine, along with reviews of recent publications.
All published contributions must be original and written in English. The editors will not normally accept articles which have appeared in substantially the same form elsewhere, whether in English or in another language. Strata will also not accept papers that are currently being considered or prepared for another publication.
Manuscripts sent to Strata should not exceed 8,000 words in length (excluding bibliography). Interested scholars should consult our submission guidelines for more information, including links to the journal’s peer review and ethics policies.
Duly prepared manuscripts should be sent to the co-editors, Professor David M. Jacobson and Dr Rachael T. Sparks, at AIASfirstname.lastname@example.org.
With the generous
support of the Anglo-Israel Archaeological Society’s Shelia and Anthony Rabin
Grant, I was able to take part in the University of Chicago’s excavations at
Tell Keisan (or Tel Kison in Hebrew), directed by David Schloen
(University of Chicago), Gunnar Lehman (Ben Gurion of the Negev) and Liz
Bloch-Smith (Princeton Theological Seminary).
Tell Keisan, situated in the
Galilee, has evidence of habitation stretching from the Neolithic period right
through to an outpost built by Saladin during the Crusader period. This season,
however, the excavation focused on Area E — a Phoenician site dating from the
early Bronze Age through to the Persian Period — while an adjunct group
excavated the remains of a neighbouring Byzantine church in Area A.
This Phoenician site, while not as
large or prosperous as others further north, was likely a trading outpost of
relative importance, linking together the northern Levantine city states with
the various emergent polities in the south — including, perhaps, the kingdom of
Israel during the Iron Age. The directors of the dig tended to have a
predilection for the High Chronology, so evidence of trade, economic
development and so forth in Iron Age I seemed to be viewed by some of those on
the dig in the context of the formation of a nearby Israelite state in the 10th
Accordingly, the primary aim of the
dig (at least from the perspective of the volunteers) was to work down from
Persian-period to Iron II and Iron I strata. Because of this, in the square I
was assigned to, we initially worked on a possible refuse pit from the Persian
Period, so one had to attentively look for evidence of the pit line while
stripping away layers — changes in soil colour and density, the size and
regularity of ceramic finds, hints of stratification — all while sectioning the
bulkhead at the side of the square. As time went on, I had the opportunity to
rotate between a number of different tasks, attend lectures and field trips,
and travel around the country.
This was my first taste of the practical side of archaeology (being a Theology undergraduate), so I felt like I came away from the dig season with a few insights I wouldn’t have gained elsewhere. I was impressed by the highly rigorous data collection at the site, aided in part by the use of OCHRE (Online Cultural and Historical Research Environment), a data management tool developed at the University of Chicago (see https://voices.uchicago.edu/ochre/). But what also intrigued me was the process of interpretation of finds on-site — whether field readings of pottery (usually done by the inimitable Gunnar Lehman), or simply the process of making observations yourself and relaying them to one’s square supervisor. In this sense, one was constantly interpreting as well as recording data. The way in which the discipline sits between the sciences and the humanities is not something that non-archaeologists always give due thought to when dealing with archaeological data, so it was interesting for me — someone with no prior experience — to gain that particular insight. I would like to thank the AIAS for their financial support, and all those from the University of Chicago for what was a memorable and highly edifying month.
Dominik Hronec, Kings College London
summer of 2019 marked the ninth season of the Huqoq excavation project led by
professor Jodi Magness from The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Thanks to a generous contribution by the AIAS and encouragement from my
professor (Joan Taylor from KCL), I was able to participate as a student
volunteer at the Huqoq archaeological site under the supervision of an
assistant director Shua Kisilevitz.
The Sunday to Friday daily routine
started at 4 am when we woke up and walked from the nearby kibbutz to the site
at 4:30 am. We would start digging at 5 am and finish at around noon. After the
dig we would wash the daily findings and have a lecture, workshop or go on a
field trip organised by the researchers in a particular area of expertise from our
The excavation of a Jewish village
at Huqoq uncovered its 5th century CE Late Roman synagogue with unique
figurative floor mosaics depicting both biblical and non-biblical scenes. The
2019 season uncovered two new mosaics. One of these is the depiction of four
beasts from the Book of Daniel, chapter 7.
The other is the depiction of a short passage from the Exodus 15:27
showing the episode of Elim. The Elim passage was identified after unearthing
the inscription — ‘And they came to Elim’.
What I realised very early on was
that the excavation at Huqoq was not only about the mosaics that make the
headlines. Yes, they are the most significant findings in Huqoq, but it is not
up to the archaeologists to decide what is important and what is not. The role
of the archaeologists is to uncover and document everything from the latest to
earliest activity at the site for any later academic purposes. Over the course
of 16 centuries, different communities have inhabited the Huqoq village:
expanding the synagogue building and adding new layers on top of the synagogue
building up until the 20th century. In order to reach the floor level of the
5th-century synagogue, the team of nearly 50 students and staff members
travelled back in time by carefully uncovering stratum after stratum, century
I was assigned to excavate the south
side, located outside the synagogue, which covered the area in front of the
synagogue’s main entrance. Our group of four, excavated two squares dating from
the 18th century back to medieval period. Every day, digging was marked by the
findings of various fragments such as pottery, animal bones, glass, tesserae,
coins, metal and charcoal. The most significant finding unearthed in our first
square located at the farthest side of the site was a medieval water channel
that filled the cistern with rainwater. The second square that we excavated was
located next to the synagogue’s threshold. Our stratum was a medieval building
extension to the synagogue, built around the above-mentioned cistern and the
synagogue courtyard. In the corner of the medieval room, our team discovered a
byzantine assemblage, consisting of chandelier fragments in the form of glass
oil lamps, chains, lamp and wick holders. Due to the delicacy of the material,
the excavation required a very careful and subtle procedure and it took us
several days to fully uncover all the chandelier fragments.
The unforgettable one-month
archaeological experience in Huqoq has encouraged me to apply for the next season
and consider undertaking a PhD in Bible and Archaeology.
Lily Nash, University of Durham
past summer saw the third season of excavations at the legionary base of Roman
Legion VI Ferrata in northern Israel, near to the biblical site of Megiddo.
They were conducted by the Jezreel Valley Regional Project (JVRP) and directed
by Matthew J. Adams, Yotam Tepper, and Susan Cohen. The JVRP is a long-term,
multi-disciplinary survey and excavation project that aims to investigate the
history of human activity in the Jezreel Valley from the Palaeolithic through
to the Ottoman period. Excavation at the legionary base of Legion VI Ferrata
provides an important window into life in this region during the Roman period.
Established in the reign of the
Emperor Hadrian during the early 2nd century CE, the legion’s base utilised its
strategic position at the entranceof the Jezreel Valley to monitor the
traffic passing through the region to Galilee and the inland valleys of
northern Palestine. In this capacity, the legionary base had crucial access to
important centres for the local —– and occasionally rebellious — Jewish
population. So far, excavation at the site has revealed clear ties to major
political and cultural events in the formative years of Rabbinic Judaism and
Christianity and has provided an incredible new window into the nature and
function of Roman military occupation in the eastern Roman provinces.
This year, excavation was focused in
two areas of the legion’s principia (legionary headquarters compound).
Area B was located in the rear cultic space (sacellum), in which the
all-important legionary standards and the treasury would have been housed. The
discovery of monumental architecture and large blocks of worked stone during
the course of fieldwork provided further confirmation that the structure in
question was indeed the base’s sacellum. Area C was situated in the
street-facing corner of the principia in the hope that excavators would
uncover the remains of a sewer system and the outer wall of the compound.
Indeed, a significant water system and extensive piping was revealed.
I excavated for the most part in Area C under the supervision of Paul Flesher and Robin Knauth. In the nine squares that we opened over the course of the season, we found significant architectural remains. These finds included large stone building blocks, a column fragment, and layers of floor substructure that covered the remains of a drainage system. Other exciting finds consisted of an unanticipated quantity of coins and a stamped roof tile that provided further confirmation that our site was indeed the base utilised by VI Ferrata Legion. Over the course of the excavation I learnt a great deal about fieldwork methods and recording, adding much to my previously basic skill set. In particular, I was very interested in the use of photogrammetry and GIS software in the recording process and was able to observe and assist with this aspect of the recording, developing technological skills that I will be able to utilise in my upcoming Honours project at the University of Melbourne in 2020.
Alex Rodzinka, Institute of Archaeology, UCL
Thanks to the grant from AIAS I was
able to take part in Tel Yaqush Research and Excavation Project in Jordan
Valley, Israel. It was my second season at Tel Yaqush so it was exciting to
come back and explore the site a bit more as well as meet a few familiar faces.
Tel Yaqush is an Early Bronze Age settlement where, in different phases of
occupation, two communities can be distinguished, local, and that of Khirbet
Kerak, which is widely believed to originate from Transcaucasia. Interestingly,
it is a sister site of Tel Beth Yerah, where I had the privilege of working in 2015,
my first excavation in Israel. That is the reason for naming the whole culture
and the specific type of pottery they produced, after Khirbet Kerak. This
provided a satisfying continuity to my excavations in Israel.
The current project is in a way a continuation of work that had been done at the site over 20 years ago when the team from the University of Chicago first started excavating there. This year I worked exclusively on re-excavating a square opened in the early 2000s in the area BM, which was especially challenging as we were dealing with the documentation left by the previous researchers and with the choices that they had made regarding excavating the area. Another task was deciding what was actually in situ and what was the result of more recent conditions affecting the square, because it had been exposed for two decades. We were dealing with multiple walls and pavements, mostly from Early Bronze I. Certain parts of the square remained much higher than the rest for no apparent reason and we began by removing them as they only caused confusion. It was satisfying to see the walls connect as we exposed them further, noting what the previous excavators had missed. I think I learned a lot from fellow students, especially when it comes to distinguishing the differences in the soil colour and recognising the elusive mudbricks in sections. Less intellectually stimulating were countless hours spent on washing pottery late into the evening, but they gave us the chance to talk about our many interests outside of archaeology. To me the most interesting and eye-opening were conversations with my Israeli friend who has worked on many excavations in this country, big and fast-paced, led by Israeli teams and just so different from the digs I have been a part of. It gives one perspective and appreciation for archaeology well done.
Rebekah Welton, University of Exeter
to the very generous Slope Award offered to me by the AIAS I was able to spend
three weeks excavating on Mount Zion in Jerusalem in the summer of 2019. I had
recently graduated from my PhD programme and wanted to continue with my
archaeological work in Jerusalem beyond the end of my doctorate. Having already
excavated on Mount Zion under the directorship of Rafi Lewis and Shimon Gibson
for five seasons I was eager to return and be a part of this unfolding and
increasingly exciting site.
As an Area Supervisor I oversaw the excavations of the northern area of the site in which we came down onto structural remains dating from the Late Byzantine, Early Byzantine and Early Roman periods. I also excavated an in-situ tabun (bread oven) base which indicated a floor level. Unfortunately, much of the floor adjacent to the tabun base was no longer intact, having been cut through by later builders. As I continued to oversee the excavation below this level, we eventually came down onto bedrock in which a square shaped cavity had been cut. I look forwarded to excavating this cavity in a later season.
southern area of the site we made some finds of major significance. In the
remains of a ruined house we uncovered arrowheads, crosses and gold jewellery
from a stratum dating from the 11th century CE. We surmise that these finds
relate to the Crusader attack on Jerusalem in July 1099 as we have also
identified the 17 m wide and 4 m deep ditch which abutted the Fatimid city
wall. This ditch was sealed with a burnt layer containing coins dating to the
time of King Baldwin III who, during a later civil war in 1153, burnt much of
the city. One piece of jewellery, likely used for fastening a headscarf or
other clothing, is simply breath-taking. It is constructed of gold in an
Egyptian style and decorated with pearls and other semi-precious stones – blue,
green and turquoise in colour.
Another significant stratum dating
to the Iron Age contained not only Iron Age potsherds but also Scythian type
bronze and iron arrowheads amongst burnt wood and ash layers. Such a stratum
and its finds may corroborate the reported Babylonian attack on Jerusalem in
586/587 BCE, making this discovery particularly pertinent for my own research
interests which relate to the material culture of Iron Age Israel and Judah.
Another piece of jewellery was found here, this time from the Iron Age. It was
made of gold and silver and appears to be fashioned into the shape of a bunch
of grapes held from a clasp. This earring or garment tassel was likely lost
during the action of the attack and buried until its excavation some 2600 years
later. Considering that jewellery is normally looted and melted down, the
discovery of both these gold pieces of ornamentation is exciting because it
provides us with a glimpse into the daily lives of people involved in these
momentous historical events.
As anticipated, my time excavating
in Jerusalem was both enjoyable and thoroughly enriching for my understanding
of material culture and the methods by which it is uncovered. I am privileged
to be a part of such a unique and fascinating project and am once again
grateful for the support of the AIAS in my continued involvement.
THE LARGEST NEOLITHIC SETTLEMENT IN ISRAEL REVEALED IN MOTZA
A large Neolithic Period Settlement was excavated by the Israel Antiquities Authority at Motza, five kilometers west of Jerusalem. The site is located on the banks of the Sorek Stream, near natural springs and close to a fertile valley optimal for long-term settlement. The excavations revealed large buildings with alleys running between them, evidence of advanced planning. Some rooms were used as living spaces, some as public facilities, and others for ritual purposes. The finds include thousands of flint arrowheads used for hunting, axes for tree-felling, along with sickle blades and knives. Several small finds were also discovered as burial offerings in the belief that they would be used by the individual in the afterlife. Numerous graves were found in and amongst the houses. The offerings include stone-made objects, some from obsidian, others from sea shells. The offerings testify that already during the Neolithic Period, the residents of this site conducted exchange relationships with faraway places and provide insight to the city’s trade networks. According to Dr. Hamoudi Khalaily and Dr. Jacob Vardi, excavation directors on behalf of the IAA, “This is the first time that such a large-scale settlement from the Neolithic Period (9,000 years ago) is discovered in Israel. At least 2,000 – 3,000 residents lived in the settlement”.
A MASSIVE CITY FROM THE EARLY BRONZE AGE AT EIN ASAWIR
A city spanning over 650 dunams, large enough to accommodate around 6,000 inhabitants, was excavated by the Israel Antiquities Authority at Ein Asawir (En Esur), in the Northern part of the Sharon. The excavation, directed by Itai Elad, Dr. Yitzhak Paz and Dr. Dina Shalem, revealed a planned city from the Early Bronze Age, around the end of the 4th millennium B.C.E., but evidence of an earlier Chalcolithic city (about 7,000 years old) was also discovered beneath the EB houses.
Next to the site are two springs which offered an abundant water supply and were used for agricultural cultivation of the surrounding land. The city contained well-planned streets, residential and public areas, and a fortification wall. A large ritual temple was found in the public area of the site. Situated in the temple’s courtyard was a large stone basin for holding liquids used during religious rituals. Inside the temple a facility containing burnt animal bones was revealed, evidence of sacrificial offerings. Along with the bones were several rare figurines, including a human head, and a seal impression of a man with lifted hands standing beside an animal. According to the directors, “The Early Bronze Age is a fascinating period in the history of ancient Canaan, one in which the rural population gives way to a complex society living mostly in urban settings. The residential buildings, diverse facilities and the public buildings are evidence that an organized society and social hierarchy existed at the time”.
GARUM FACTORY NEAR ASHKELON
Vats used to produce fish sauce (garum) that are among the few known in the Eastern Mediterranean, were recently uncovered by the Israel Antiquities Authority in Ashkelon. The excavation, directed by Dr. Tali Erickson-Gini, has revealed evidence of 2000-year old Roman and Byzantine culinary preferences. The ancient Roman diet was based largely on fish sauce. Historical sources refer to the production of special fish sauce that was used as a basic condiment for food in the Roman and Byzantine Eras throughout the Mediterranean basin. They report that the accompanying strong odours during its production required its being distanced from urban areas. In our case the installations were discovered approximately 2 km. to the east from the ancient city of Ashkelon. The Roman site was eventually abandoned and in the Byzantine Period, during the 5th Century C.E., a monastic community settles at the site, making a living from wine production. Three winepresses were found next to a decorated church. A large kiln complex, where wine jars were produced, was located nearby. These appear to have been used for exporting wine, which was the primary income for the monastery.
According to Dr. Erickson-Gini: “The site, which served as an industrial area over several periods, was again abandoned sometime after the Islamic conquest of the region in 7th c. C.E. and later nomadic families, probably residing in tents, dismantled the structures and sold the different parts for building material elsewhere.”
THE ‘STEPPED STREET’ IN THE CITY OF DAVID POSSIBLY CONSTRUCTED BY PONTIUS PILATE
A 2,000-year-old street that may have been commissioned by Pontius Pilate for pilgrims has been uncovered in Jerusalem by archaeologists from the Israel Antiquities Authority in the last few years. The ‘Stepped Street’ is situated in the City of David and stretched between the Pool of Siloam in the south and Temple Mount in the north. Parts of the street has been known for over 50 years, however exactly when it was built was unclear. Previous archaeological data suggested it was constructed at some point between the reign of Herod the Great, around 37 B.C., and that of Herod Agrippa II, who died around 100 C.E. In a recent research, published by Nahshon Szanton, Moran Hagbi, Dr. Joe Uziel and Dr. Donald T. Ariel from the Israel Antiquities Authority, 100 coins that had been found in latest excavations trapped beneath the paving slabs of the street were analyzed. The latest of the coins found dated to between 17 and 31 C.E., during the period when Pontius Pilate governed Judea.
The street was found beneath layers of destruction from the Great Revolt against the Romans, in which Jerusalem was destroyed in 70 C.E. It was paved with stone slabs and about 10,000 tons of quarried limestone rock, a task that would have required a huge amount of time and skill. Compared to other streets from the time, this walkway would have been very grand, adding weight to the idea it served as a pilgrim route. According to Dr. Donald T. Ariel “Statistically, coins minted some 10 years later than 30 C.E. are the most common coins in Jerusalem, so not having them beneath the street means the street was built before their appearance, in other words only in the time of Pontius Pilate. He may have had the street built in order to reduce tensions with the Jewish population in the city at the time”.
SYNAGOGUE MOSAIC REVEALED IN THE GOLAN HEIGHTS
Fragments of a mosaic depicting animals were uncovered during an excavation of the Zinman Institute of Archaeology, Haifa University, at a synagogue in the ancient settlement of Majdolia in the Golan Heights. The excavation, directed by Dr. Mechael Osband, uncovered a synagogue active from the first century C.E., after the Second Temple was destroyed, to the end of the third century C.E. Only the fragmented bottom layer of the mosaic was preserved. The fragments that were uncovered point to the floor of the synagogue once being colorful and filled with geometric shapes. The central hall’s mosaic was found to be complex and rich in shapes and colors, and despite its state, designs of footprints of birds and other animals could be identified.
According to Dr. Osband: “In the third century we see an interesting combination of the already established tradition of synagogues, following the destruction of the Second Temple, with new artistic elements that will later become widespread, such as colourful animal mosaics. The discovery had vast importance to the historical record, as most experts assumed that the Jewish settlement on the Golan Heights ceased following the First Jewish–Roman War in 67 C.E. and the destruction of Gamla, a central trade and commerce hub in the area, during that period. This new find strengthens the notion that the Jewish settlement in the area continued even after the war.”
A fifth-century Samaritan Mosaic Discovered at Zur-Nathan
A 5th-century Blessing Inscription was discovered at Zur-Nathan in the Sharon Plain during a survey and excavation directed by the Israel Antiquities Authority. The Greek inscription reads: ‘Only God, help the beautiful property of Master Adios, Amen’.
The inscription was discovered in an impressive wine-press that was apparently part of the agricultural estate of a wealthy individual called Adios. The inscription’s formula and the location of discovery points to the estate belonging to Samaritans.
According to Hagit Torge, director of the excavations: ‘This is only the second such winepress discovered in Israel with a blessing inscription associated with the Samaritans. The first was discovered a few years ago in Apollonia near Herzliya’.
The inscription in the wine-press is additional testimony to once-extensive Samaritan settlement in the southern Sharon Plain during the Byzantine period.
Two Funerary Busts from Beit She’an
A local woman taking a winter walk near the city of Beit She’an spotted two funerary busts sticking up out of the ground, apparently exposed by the rain. The woman called the Antiquities Theft Prevention Unit (ATPU) of the Israel Antiquities Authority who transferred them to the national Treasury.
The statues have been dated to the the 3rd–4th centuries CE, the Late Roman Period. They are made of local limestone and closely describe facial and dress features.
Dr. Eitan Klein from the Israel Antiquities Authority who studied the busts said: ‘Funerary busts were often located in or around burial chambers, and appear to generally describe the deceased. Similar statues have been found near Beit She’an and in northern Jordan, but no two are alike. These two busts were made in the oriental style, testifying to the waning of the classical styles and adoption of local styles in this region during the Late Roman Period’.
Antiquities Looters Caught at Khirbet Huqoq Synagogue
Two looters were caught at the ancient Synagogue of Khirbet Huquq in the lower Galilee. The two were caught red-handed by inspectors of the Antiquities Theft Prevention Unit (ATPU) while illegally digging in search for ancient coins, aided by a metal detector and digging equipment.
The looters had been under surveillance from the moment they arrived on the site. According to Nir Distelfeld from the Israel Antiquities Authority ‘the two had ancient coins in their pockets. They succeeded to dig dozens of shallow pits into the site’s surface, permanently damaging archaeological strata’.
Khirbet Huqoq has been studied by Archeologists since the 19th century. Since 2011 it has been excavated by archeologists from the University of North Carolina, headed by Prof. Jodi Magness, and assisted by the IAA and the Tel Aviv University. During the excavation a 5th-century synagogue adorned with magnificent mosaics has been found.
A Greek Inscription with the City’s Name Uncovered at Haluza
A Greek inscription mentioning the city’s name was uncovered during an excavation at Haluza in the western Negev.
Excavations at the site have been ongoing for the past three years, led by a team of the German University of Cologne under the direction of Prof. Michael Heisenelmann and a team of students from the University of Cologne and the University of Bonn, in cooperation with Dr. Tali Erickson-Gini from the Israel Antiquities Authority.
The name Haluza is mentioned in historical sources, but this is the first evidence for the name of the city to be found at the site itself. The text, which read ‘Elusa’ in Greek, is currently being studied by Professor Leah Di Segni of Hebrew University. The site ceased to exist in the 7th century C.E., but the name Haluza was commemorated in the Arabic name for the ruins: Al-Khalasa.
A Bulla of ‘Natan-Melech the King’s Servant’
A bulla bearing the Hebrew name ‘Natan-Melech the King’s Servant’ was uncovered during archaeological excavations of the Givati Parking Lot in the City of David, carried by Prof. Yuval Gadot of Tel Aviv University and Dr. Yiftah Shalev of the Israel Antiquities Authority.
The artefact was discovered inside a public building that was probably destroyed during the Babylonian destruction of Jerusalem in 586 BCE.
The name Nathan-Melech appears once in the Bible, in the second book of Kings 23:11, where he is described as an official in the court of King Josiah, who took part in the king’s religious reforms. The title ‘Servant of the King’ frequently appears in the Bible to describe a high-ranking official close to the king.
Information in this report was kindly provided by Dr Eitan Klein, Deputy Director of the Unit for the Prevention of Antiquities Looting in the Israel Antiquities Authority, an Archaeologist of the classical periods and a Lecturer at the Land of Israel Department at Ashqelon Academic College.